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Many of Lalvin's yeasts are only sold in quantities of 500 mg or larger and are intended for commercial rather than home use. It is often feasible for a winemaking club's members to pool their resources and purchase a quantity, then divide it up among themselves. Alternatively, one could check the commercial wineries in their area and determine whether they would sell a small quantity of yeast if they happen to be using one of these. ==Lalvin 43== : This yeast was selected for its exceptional ability to restart stuck fermentations, out-performing 33 different isolates tested against each other and the traditional strains typically used to restart stuck fermentations. The stuck fermentations used in the selection process were from wines with high alcohols (14.3% with 21 gm/l residual sugar) and high free SO2 (35 mg/l). Although selected for its restart abilities, it also gives good sensory results when used in high sugar musts. It is a fast fermenter with a temperature range of 55-95Â° F. Alcohol tolerance is at leat 18%. ==Lalvin 71B-1122 (Narbonne)== : This yeast metabolizes more of the malic acid during fermentation than most other yeasts and should be considered for wines which are high in malic. It is noted for producing "fruity" reds such as vin nouveau and works well with high-acid native North American grapes, producing rounder, smoother, more aromatic wines that tend to mature quickly. Because it is also known for making blush, rose and semi-sweet wines with a tropical fruit character, it promotes these styles with Cabernet Franc, Gewï¿½rtztraminer and Riesling. For obvious reasons, is often the yeast of choice for a great many malic fruit and berries and for vegetable-grape concentrate blended wines. Alcohol toxicity is predictable at 14% and its temperature range is 60-85Â° F. ==Lalvin AC-== : This yeast was selected from fermentations in the Loire region with the objective of finding a strain that would lower the acidity perception while maintaining and developing fresh fruit and floral aromatics. A moderate speed fermenter, this strain can tolerate fermentation temperatures to 85Â°F., yet still produce low levels of SO2 and H2S. This yeast is used in the Loire Valley for Sauvignon Blanc and Muscadet as a complement to young, balanced dry or off-dry white wines. It should prove useful for high acidty North American native grape varieties and high acid fruits. Alcohol toxicity is 14%. ==Lalvin AMH (Assmanshausen)== : This yeast enhances the varietal character of such grapes as Pinot Noir and Zinfandel. It is considered a color friendly strain that enhances spicy and fruity flavors and aromas. This strain has a long lag phase, a slow to medium fermentation rate and benefits greatly from the use of superior nutrients. Good strain domination is obtained if the culture is allowed to develop in about 10% of the total must for about 8 hours before final inoculation. It has a 15% alcohol tolerance at a temperature rage of 68-86Â°F. ==Lalvin BA11== : This strain is a relatively new selection (1997), isolated near Estaï¿½ï¿½o Vitivinicola de Barraida in Portugal. It has excellent fermentation kinetics, even at low temperatures (68-86Â°), a 16% alcohol toxicity ceiling, and excellent promotion of esters. It promotes clean, aromatic, varietal characteristics and intensifies mouthfeel and lingering flavors in white wines and does almost as well with rose styles. In relatively neutral white varieties, it encourages the fresh fruit aromas of orange blossom, pineapple and apricot. It requires a high-nitrogen nutrient. ==Lalvin BDX== : A French isolate, Lallemand touts this strain as "The perfect fermenter." It has perfect fermentation kinetics at a moderate rate and temperature (64-86Â°F.) and does not generate a lot of heat during fermentation. It is highly recommended for the production of quality dry red wines (alcohol toxicity at 16%), especially Merlot and Cabernet sauvignon, with minimum color loss and enhanced flavor and aroma. Like BA11, it requires a high-nitrogen nutrient. ==Lalvin BGY (Burgundy)== : Isolated in the Burgundy region of France, this strain should be considered primarily for commercial use rather than the home. It is used in reds, particularly Pinot Noir, for slow fermentations within a temperature range of 75-86Â° with an alcohol ceiling of 15%. This is not an easy strain to use, but can produce good results when carefully rehydrated following Lallemand's recommendations and inoculated into must with balanced nutrients. ==Lalvin BM45== : This strain was selected from many world class Brunello di Montalcino fermentations for its enological characteristics. It is a relatively slow starter, well adapted to long maceration programs within a 64-82Â° temperature range. It has high nitrogen requirements and can produce H2S if nutrient-starved. It produces high levels of polysaccharides and therefore wines with increased mouthfeel. It tends to bring out aromas in Sangiovese described as fruit jams, rose and cherry liquors, with evident and clean notes of sweet spices, licorice and cedar. It also is used to minimize vegetal characteristics and can be used with Chardonnay as a blending component to increase mouthfeel. With a 16% alcohol toxicity ceiling, it reliably ferments to dryness.
==Lalvin BRL97== : This Barolo strain was selected from over 600 isolates taken from 31 wineries of the Barolo region as a natural yeast from Nebbiolo able to retain and enhance color. It is a fast starter and moderately speedy fermenter within a temperature range of 63-84Â°F. that demonstrates good MLF compatibility. It is recommended for its color stabilization and sensory contributions in heavier structured reds such as Zinfandel, Barbera, Merlot and Nebbiolo. It enhances color stability, maintains structure and is favored when long aging is planned. It ferments to 16% alcohol and has moderate nitrogen needs. ==Lalvin CSM== : Isolated in Bordeaux for Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Merlot. It favors color and phenolic extraction, is red fruit driven, reduces vegetal aromas and adds complexity along with balanced, round mouthfeel. Its optimum fermentation range is between 59-89ï¿½ F. and it does not handle alcohols above 14%. This strain requires high levels of nitrogen and nutrients but will promote malolactic fermentation. ==Lalvin CY3079== : This strain was selected from fermentations in the Burgundy region to complement the typical white Burgundy styles of winemaking. It is a slow, steady fermenter even at cooler temperatures (60-86Â°F), demonstrates a good alcohol tolerance (15%), and produces few volatile acids and H2S if its hight nitrogen needs are met. It is highly recommended for barrel fermentation and sur lie aging of Chardonnay. It releases peptides at the end of fermentation that are believed to enhance many aromas, such as fresh butter, honey, white flowers, and pineapple. In both the Chablis and Montrachet regions barrel fermentations with this strain showed richer, fuller mouthfeel compared to other strains. ==Lalvin DV10== : This is "the original Champagne isolate," according to Lallemand, known in other contexts as Epernay. Its fermentation kinetics are strong over a wide temperature range (50-96Â°F) with relatively low oxygen and nitrogen demands. It is one of the most widely used strains in Champagne and is known for clean fermentations that respect varietal character while avoiding bitter sensory contributions associated with many other strains. It is highly recomended for both premium white and red varietals, mead and cider production, and many fruit, berry, vegetable, and herb wines. It is a fast fermenter with an 18% alcohol tolerance, is famous for its ability to ferment under stressful conditions of low pH, high total SO2, and is low foaming with low volatile acid production. ==Lalvin EC-1118 (Prise de Mousse)== : This is the original, steady, low foamer, excellent for barrel fermentation or for working on heavy suspended pulps. It is one of the most popular wine yeasts in the world. It ferments well at low temperatures, flocculates well, and produces very compact lees. It is good for Champagne bases, secondary (bottle) fermentations, restarting stuck fermentations, and for late harvest grapes. It is also the yeast of choice for apple, crabapple, cranberry, hawthorn, and cherry wines. It has excellent organoleptic properties and should be in every vinter's refrigerator. Alcohol toxicity is 18% and it ferments relatively fast. It tolerates temperatures from 39-95ï¿½ F. It is not, however, tolerant of concurrent malolactic fermentation. ==Lalvin ICV-D21 (Languedoc)== : This strain was isolated in 1999 for fermenting red wines with stable color, intense fore-mouth and mid-palate tannin structure, and fresher aftertaste. It contributes polysaccharides and retains higher acidity, inhibiting development of cooked jam and burning-alcohol sensations in highly mature and concentrated Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Syrah. It produces very few sulfur compounds, allows the expression of fruit from the grapes while reducing the potential for herbaceous characters in Cabernet Sauvignon. When blended with wines fermented with ICV-D254 and ICV-D80, wines fermented with ICV-D21 bring fresher, deep fruit and continuous intense sensations beginning in the fore-mouth and carrying through to the aftertaste. It is almost as desirable a strain for whites as for reds, is a moderately fast fermenter with a temperature range of 64-96ï¿½, and an alcohol tolerance to 16%. ==;Lalvin ICV-D47 (C?tes-du-Rh?ne)== : This is a low-foaming quick fermenter that settles well and forms compact lees at the end of fermentation, although when left on the lees, ripe spicy aromas with tropical and citrus notes develop. This strain tolerates fermentation temperatures ranging from 50Â° to 86Â°F. and enhances mouth feel due to complex carbohydrates and high polysaccharide production. Malolactic fermentation proceeds well in wine made with ICV-D47. This strain is recommended for making wines from white varieties such as Chardonnay and for rose style wines. It is ideal for persimmon, peach, nectarine, paw-paw, and mango, as well as aromatic wines such as rose petal, elderflower, anise and woodruff. It is also an excellent choice for producing mead if supplemented with yeast nutrients, especially usable nitrogen. Its alcohol ceiling is 14%. ==Lalvin ICV-D80 (C?te R?tie)== : This strain was isolated in the Rh?ne Valley for its ability to ferment high sugar musts low in nitrogen and high in polyphenols. It is a rapid starter, with moderate fermentation rates within a temperature range of 64-96Â°F., and alcohol tolerance of up to 15%. This strain is able to bring out differentiated varietal aromas by reinforcing the rich concentrated flavors found in varieties such as Zinfandel and Syrah, but it also enhances less aromatic varieties such as Petite Sirah. To optimize complexity, it is recommended that finished reds fermented with ICV-D80 be blended with finished reds fermented with ICV-D254. The ICV-D80 compliments ICV-D254 by bringing more tannin intensity to the blend and adds a long lasting smoke and licorice finish. ==Lalvin ICV-D254== : This Rh?ne strain was isolated from Syrah fermentations after screening 3,000 isolates and putting 450 of them through trials for their enological properties. It was selected for its ability to ferment in low-to-medium nitrogen musts. It is a low foamer with an alcohol tolerance of up to 16% when fermentation does not exceed 82Â°F. (53Â° is the low). In red wines this yeast strain develops ripe fruit, jam, and cedar aromas together with a mild spiciness. On the palate it promises a high fore-mouth volume, big mid-palate mouthfeel with intense fruit concentration, and a mild spice and smooth tannin finish. Used on white wines -- in particular barrel fermented Chardonnay -- the sensory profile is described as showing pronounced butterscotch, cream, smoke, hazelnut, and almond aromas. ==Lalvin ICV-GRE== : This strain from the Cornas area of the Rh?ne Valley was selected for easy-to-drink Rhï¿½ne style wines with up-front, direct red fruit. This style is well expressed by short skin contact (3 to 5 days). Under these conditions, this strain helps avoid the risk of vegetal and sulfur off-characters in varieties such as Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. In Rh?ne whites and roses, it results in stable, direct, fresh fruit characters such as melon and apricot and delivers big fore-mouth impact. It has a temperature range of 64-96Â°F., an alcohol tolerance of up to 15%, and requires high nitrogen supplementation. ==Lalvin K1-V1116 (Montpellier)== : This strain tends to express freshness of the grape or fruit variety, especially in Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon and Chenin Blanc, but also in fruit such as peaches, nectarines, kiwis, and strawberries. Because it produces such flowery esters as isoamyl acetate, hexyl acetate, and phenyl ethyl acetate, the natural fresh fruit aromas are retained for a longer period compared to standard yeasts. It is recommended for French hybrid whites, mature reds, and ice wines as well. This strain ferments well under stressed conditions and may be used to restart a stuck fermentation. Known among enologists as the original "killer yeast," K1 dominates almost any fermentation and is capable of fermenting to 20% alcohol if sufficient nutrients, nitrogen, and fermentable sugars are properly employed, but 18% is quite reachable. It is a fast fermenter and can tolerate a huge temerature range (50-107Â°F). It is not, however, tolerant of concurrent malolactic fermentation. ==Lalvin L2056== : This strain was selected for its ability to maintain varietal fruit aromas and flavors of Cï¿½tes du Rhï¿½ne varieties. It retains varietal aromas and flavors well, has good alcohol tolerance (16%), and low SO2 production. It maintains good color stability at a temperature range is 59-89Â°F. It is a quick to moderate rate fermenter with a relatively high nutrient requirement. It is excellent for forward fruit style reds and is becoming more available. ==Lalvin L2226== : This is another vineyard isolate from C?tes du Rh?ne. It is alcohol tolerant to 18% over a temperature range is 59-89Â°F. and is highly recommended for high sugar reds and late harvest wines. In red varietals, high color and good structure as well as black cherry, berry and cherry cola aromas can be obtained with high nitrogen nutrients. ==Lalvin MO5== : Isolated in the Loire Valley Muscadet region, this is a slow fermenter that requires adequate nutrients and high levels of oxygen. It works particularly well in low maturity white grapes from cool regions, achieving 14% alcohol at 59-90Â°F. With lees aging, it will produce roundness and lower acidity. Even in low quality fruit it produces floral esters and fruity, balanced wines with a long finish. ==Lalvin M1== : This strain is used to produce aromatic rose and white wines, especially wines with residual sugar. Due to the high production of esters, typical descriptors include 'fruit punch', especially when fermented at lower temperatures (down to 54Â°F.) and provided adequate, balanced nutrition with high nitrogen. The production of esters is limited at temperatures above 68Â°F. and alcohol tolerance tops at 16%. The yeast flocculates and settles to give compact lees. ==Lalvin M2== : This is a neutral to low ester-producing yeast and needs a high level of balanced nutrients with moderate nitrogen for a strong fermentation finish. It can achieve 15% alcohol at 59-86Â°F. In both reds and whites it can be distinguished by its expression of citrus and blossom notes, but is also excellent for producing well-rounded rose wines. ==Lalvin QA23== : This is a Portugese isolate used for Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc, Colombard, and Semillon for production of fresh, fruity, clean wines. It enhances aromas of terpenic varietals through beta-glucosidase activity. It has a low nutrient requirement and will ferment juice of low solids content at low temperatures (50-90Â°F. range). It is a fast fermenter with an alcohol ceiling of 16%. ==Lalvin R2== : Isolated in the Sauternes region of Bordeaux, this strain has excellent cold temperature tolerance (42-86Â°F. range) and will contribute esters which makes it a very good strain for whites made from grapes such as Riesling, Chenin Blanc, Vidal, and Seyval. It may be used for fruit wines whenever a Sauternes wine yeast is specified. Alcohol toxicity is 16% and fermentation is fast. This yeast rarely sticks and in fact can be used to restart a stuck fermentation if alcohol has not reached too high a level. ==Lalvin RA17== : This yeast was isolated in Burgundy and is used for young, easy to drink Pinot Noirs and Gamays. It enhances the varietal aromas and quickly develops an early release red. This strain should be good for Zinfandel, Merlot, and even Black Spanish, but also for black fruit and berries. This is a worthwhile strain to keep in the refrigerator for a special need. Alcohol toxicity is 15% and it is quite tolerant of concurrent malolactic fermentation. It does require a high nitrogen nutrient to avoid the formation of H2S. Wines made from RA17 can be blended with wines fermented with RC212, BRL97 or AMH to give a more balanced, complex and fuller structure. ==Lalvin RC212 (Bourgovin)== : This yeast is traditionally used in the Burgundy region for full red wines and is a favorite of home winemakers seeking similar big reds. Naturally, it is perfect for Pinot Noir. It has good alcohol reach (14-16%) and high temperature (68-86Â°F.) tolerance and excellent color stability. This yeast requires high nitrogen nutrient additions to avoid the potential development of H2S. It is quite suitable for use with non-grape black and red fruit (plums, prickly pear cactus fruit, pomergrantes) and berries (blackberries, raspberries, dewberries, mulberries). It is quite tolerant of concurrent malolactic fermentation. ==Lalvin R-HST== : This strain was selected for its exceptional oenological properties in Riesling from trials conducted 1991 to 1996 in Austria. It has a short lag phase and generation time, even at cold temperatures (50-86Â°F. range). These features allow it to dominate and persist over spoilage yeast such as Kloeckera apiculata where other S. cerevisiae might have difficulty. It is a relatively neutral strain and retains fresh varietal character while contributing body and mouthfeel. It also produces crisp, premium white wines intended for aging. With a 15% alcohol ceiling, it should take any white to dryness. ==Lalvin S6U== : This strain was selected for its unique ecological characteristics, such as the ability to ferment at low temperatures in musts with low levels of suspended solids. The most unique properties of this strain are its high glycerol production (1-2 g/l higher than other strains) and high titratable acidity (1.5 g/l higher) at the end of fermentation, adding to increased mouthfeel. Repeat fermentations with this strain have shown lower alcohol conversion compared to other Saccharomyces uvarum strains when fermented under cool conditions. ==Lalvin Simi-White== : This is a popular choice for fruity white and rosï¿½ style wines. It can achieve 14% alcohol at 59-86ï¿½ F. It is prized for its ester-producing aroma and flavor contribution to Chardonnay and has been described as contributing creamy fruit. It is highly affected by nutrient composition and juice handling procedures and has a tendency to produce a lot of foam. ==Lalvin Syrah== : This C?te du Rh?ne isolate is used for Syrah, Merlot and Carignane. It is a high glycerol producer and offers good mouthfeel and stable color extraction. Its temperature range is 50-90Â°F. with alcohol production to 16%. It requires high nutrient levels and shows the best sensory results when rehydrated according to Lallemand's suggestions. Typical aromas include violets, raspberries, cassis, strawberries, and black pepper. ==Lalvin T73== : Isolated from a premium Spanish Claret in the Valencia area, this strain is noted for its ability to enhance the natural aromas and flavors of red wines produced in very warm climates. Wines that especially have trouble "opening up" are enhanced by the well-balanced production of esters and higher alcohols (to 16%). In the American Southwest, this is a good strain for Black Spanish (Lenoir), Favorite and even dark natives. A good glycerol production contributes to a pleasant mouth feel. This is a competitive yeast with moderate fermentation speed. ==Lalvin T306== : This strain was isolated from indigenous fermentations of Pinot Noir at Tyrrell's Vineyards, Pokolbin, NSW Australia. It can achieve 14% alcohol at 59-86Â°F. It is used mainly for fruit focused Pinot Gris, Chardonnay, Semillon, and Chenin Blanc. In barrel fermented Chardonnay it contributes elegant, light white fruit. It requires nutrients high in nitrogen and ferments moderately fast. ==Lalvin W15== : This strain was isolated from a high quality M?ller Thurgau must in Switzerland. It was developed to ferment dry whites and roses at moderate speeds where bright fruit and heavy mouthfeel are desired. It also ferments light red varieties well, with alcohol reaching 16% and nitrogen-heavy nutrient requirements. It has a 50-81Â°F. range and produces higher levels of glycerol and succinic acid, especially at temperatures above 77Â°F. ==Lalvin W27== : This Swiss strain boasts a slow, steady, low-foaming fermentation tolerant of low temperatures (39-85Â°F. range). Its low heat production make it an excellent choice for whites and reds alike, with reds experiencing a lack of color loss due to low glycosidase production. Alcohol toxicity is 14% and it is more tolerant of concurrent malolactic fermentation than most yeasts. ==Lalvin W46== : This strain was isolated from a Pinot Noir fermentation in the Zurich region, although it is a better white wine producer than red. Its fermentations take off quickly and rapidly dominate indigenous flora. It is similar to W27, with a 39-85Â° temperature range and 14% alcohol ceiling, but has a more rapid fermentation rate and is not sas nitrogen demanding. Low temperature tolerance and clean fruit aromas are characteristic. In Pinot noir there is little color loss and in Riesling and Sylvaner it enhances flavor and aroma profiles.